The uniliteral signs represent the 25 consonant (and semivowel) phonemes of Egyptian. They are often referred to, loosely, as the Egyptian “alphabet”. While not strictly accurate, it gets the point across.

A few sounds can be represented by several glyphs; the one on the left in those pairs is the more common one.

The order of the table below is the standard order used in Egyptology texts, including hieroglyphic dictionaries.

Note that the “Conventional Sound” column does not indicate the latest scholarly understanding of how Ancient Egyptian was actually pronounced. It is purely a conventional way that Egyptologists can pronounce the sound when discussing texts.

For details about objects and living species represented, see Sign List.

HieroglyphTransiliterationDepictsConventional soundGardiner
π“„Ώκœ£Egyptian vultureaG1
𓇋jReedi, yM17
π“‡ŒyTwo reedsi, yM17A
π“…± π“²wQuail chick; coil of ropew, uG43, Z7
π“ŠͺpStool or matpQ3
𓆑fHorned viperfI9
π“…“ π“mOwlmG17, Aa15
π“ˆ– π“‹”nRipple; the Red CrownnN35, S3
𓉔hShelter made of reedshO4
π“Ž›αΈ₯Twisted rope or string for wickEmphatic “h” like breathing on eyeglassesV28
𓐍ḫUncertain“ch” as in “chutzpah”, “Bach”Aa1
π“„‘αΊ–Belly of animalLike αΈ« with narrower airflow and/or with a “y” at the endF32
π“ŠƒzDoor boltz, sO34
π“‹΄sFolded clothsS29
π“ˆ™Ε‘Pool“sh” as in “shirt”N37
π“ˆŽqHillsideq (like k in back of throat) or simply kN29
π“Ž‘kBasket with handlekV31
π“ŽΌ π“Ž€gJar-stand; linen bag gW11, V33
𓏏tLoaf of bread tX1
𓍿ṯTethering ropet with a y after, or “ch” as in “church”V13
𓆓ḏCobra d with a y after, or “j” as in “jump”I10