The uniliteral signs represent the 25 consonant (and semivowel) phonemes of Egyptian. They are often referred to, loosely, as the Egyptian “alphabet”. While not strictly accurate, it gets the point across.
A few sounds can be represented by several glyphs; the one on the left in those pairs is the more common one.
The order of the table below is the standard order used in Egyptology texts, including hieroglyphic dictionaries.
Note that the “Conventional Sound” column does not indicate the latest scholarly understanding of how Ancient Egyptian was actually pronounced. It is purely a conventional way that Egyptologists can pronounce the sound when discussing texts.
For details about objects and living species represented, see Sign List.
|𓇌||y||Two reeds||i, y||M17A|
|𓅱 𓏲||w||Quail chick; coil of rope||w, u||G43, Z7|
|𓊪||p||Stool or mat||p||Q3|
|𓅓 𓐝||m||Owl||m||G17, Aa15|
|𓈖 𓋔||n||Ripple; the Red Crown||n||N35, S3|
|𓉔||h||Shelter made of reeds||h||O4|
|𓎛||ḥ||Twisted rope or string for wick||Emphatic “h” like breathing on eyeglasses||V28|
|𓐍||ḫ||Uncertain||“ch” as in “chutzpah”, “Bach”||Aa1|
|𓄡||ẖ||Belly of animal||Like ḫ with narrower airflow and/or with a “y” at the end||F32|
|𓊃||z||Door bolt||z, s||O34|
|𓈙||š||Pool||“sh” as in “shirt”||N37|
|𓈎||q||Hillside||q (like k in back of throat) or simply k||N29|
|𓎡||k||Basket with handle||k||V31|
|𓎼 𓎤||g||Jar-stand; linen bag||g||W11, V33|
|𓏏||t||Loaf of bread||t||X1|
|𓍿||ṯ||Tethering rope||t with a y after, or “ch” as in “church”||V13|
|𓆓||ḏ||Cobra||d with a y after, or “j” as in “jump”||I10|